Exclusionary School Discipline and School Achievement for Middle and High School Students, by Race and Ethnicity

This cohort study evaluated 16 849 middle and high school students from a single large urban district in California over 3 years. Having experienced an ESD event in the first year was associated with a lower average GPA by 0.88 points; Black and Latine students experienced more events and more significantly lower GPA by over half a grade point.


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